List of RS Clinicals

For those of you who are data-driven, this page lists of clinical (human) studies with unmodified resistant starch (type RS1, RS2, RS3). For explanations on the demonstrated benefits, see the health benefits page.

  1. Abell G. C. J., C. M.  Cooke, C. N. Bennett, M. A. Conlon, A. L. McOrist. Phylotypes related to Ruminococcus bromii are abundant in the large bowel of humans and increase in response to a diet high in resistant starch. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 66, no. 3 (2008): 505-15.
  2. Ahmed, R., I. Segal, H. Hassan. Fermentation of dietary starch in humans. Am J Gastroenterol. 95, no. 4 (2000): 1017-1020.
  3. Adyarini DD, Sinorita H, IKhsan MR. The effect of providing food made from resistant starch fiber (Dioscorea Esculenta, Maranta Arundinaceae L, Cucurbita Moschata, Manihot Utilissma) on the improvement of glycated albumin in type 2 diabetes mellitu patients at Dr. Sardjito General Hospital. Acta Interna J Internal Med. 9, no. 1 (2019):1-7.
  4. Alam, N. H., S. Islam, S. Sattar, S. Monira and J. F. Desjeux. Safety of Rapid Intravenous Rehydration and Comparative Efficacy of 3 Oral Rehydration Solutions in the Treatment of Severely Malnourished Children with Dehydrating Cholera. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 48, no. 3 (2009): 318-27.
  5. Alfa M. J., D. Strang, P. S. Tappia, M. Graham, G. Van Dormselaar, J. D. Forbes, V. Laminman, N. Olson, P. DeGagne, D. Bray, B-L. Murray, B. Dufault, L. M. Lix. A randomized trial to determine the impact of a digestion resistant starch composition on the gut microbiome in older and mid-age adults. Clin Nutr. 37, no. 3 (2018): 797-807.
  6. Alfa, M.J., D. Strrang, P.S. Tappia, N. Olson, P. DeGagne, D. Bray, B-L. Murray, B. Hiebert. A randomized placebo controlled clinical trial to determine the impact of digestion resistant starch MSPrebiotic(R) on glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in elderly and mid-aged adults. Front Med. 4 (2018): 260.
  7. Al-Mana, N.M., M.D. Robertson. The impact of body mass index status on appetite responses and food intake following acute consumption of resistant starch. Proc Nutr Soc. 77, no. OCE2 (2018): E36.
  8. Alles, M. S., M. B. Katan, J. M. Salemans, K. M. Van Laere, M. J. Gerichhausen, M. J. Rozendaal and F. M. Nagengast. Bacterial Fermentation of Fructooligosaccharides and Resistant Starch in Patients with an Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 66, no. 5 (1997): 1286-92.
  9. Álvarez-Acosta, T., C. León, S. Acosta-González, H. Parra-Soto, I. Cluet-Rodriguez, M. Rosario Rossell, J. A. Colina-Chourio. Beneficial Role of Green Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) in the management of Persistent Diarrhea: A Prospective Randomized Trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 28, no. 2 (2009):169-176.
  10. Anderson, G. H., N. L. Catherine, D. M. Woodend and T. M. Wolever. Inverse Association between the Effect of Carbohydrates on Blood Glucose and Subsequent Short-Term Food Intake in Young Men. Am J Clin Nutr. 76, no. 5 (2002): 1023-30.
  11. Anderson, G. H., C. E. Cho, T. Akhavan, R. C. Mollard, B. L. Luhovyy and E. T. Finocchiaro. Relation between Estimates of Cornstarch Digestibility by the Englyst in Vitro Method and Glycemic Response, Subjective Appetite, and Short-Term Food Intake in Young Men. Am J Clin Nutr. 91, no. 4 (2010): 932-9.
  12. Aoe S., F. Nakamura, S. Fujiwara. Effect of wheat bran on fecal butyrate-producing bacteria and wheat bran combined with barley on Bacteroides abundance in Japanese healthy adults. Nutrients. 10, no 12 (2018): 1980.
  13. Aryana, K, F Greenway, N Dhurandhar, R Tulley, J Finley, M. Keenan, R Martin, C Pelkman, D Olson and J Zheng. A Resistant-Starch Enriched Yogurt: Fermentability, Sensory Characteristics, and a Pilot Study in Children. F1000 Research. 2015, 4:139.
  14. Azevedo, R, M. Esgalhado, J.A. Kemp, B. Regis, L.F.M.F. Cardoza, L.S. Nakao, J.S. Brito, D. Mafra. Resistant starch supplementation effects on plasma indole 3-acetic acid and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mRNA expression in hemodialysis patients: Randomized, double blind and controlled clinical trial. J. Bras. Nefrol. (2020). Epub 18 May 2020.
  15. Balamurugan, R., S. Pugazhendhi, G.M. Balachander, T. Dharmalingam, E.K. Mortimer, G.L. Gopalsamy, R.J. Woodman, R. Meng, D.H. Alpers, M. Manary, H.J. Binder, I.L. Brown, G.P. Young, B. S. Ramakrishna. Effect of native and acetylated dietary resistant starches on intestinal fermentative capacity of normal and stunted children in southern India. Int J Environ Res Public Health. (2019) 16:3922.
  16. Baxter, N.T., A.W. Schmidt, A. Venkataraman, K.W. Kim, C. Waldron, T.M. Schmidt. Dynamics of human gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in response to dietary interventions with three fermentable fibers. mBio. 10, no. 1 (2019), e02566-18.
  17. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield and J. Canary. Effect of Starch Structure on Glucose and Insulin Responses in Adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 47, no. 3 (1988): 428-32.
  18. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield, I. Yuhaniak and J. Canary. Diets Containing High Amylose Vs Amylopectin Starch: Effects on Metabolic Variables in Human Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 49, no. 2 (1989): 337-44.
  19. Behall, K. M. and J. C. Howe. Effect of Long-Term Consumption of Amylose Vs Amylopectin Starch on Metabolic Variables in Human Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 61, no. 2 (1995): 334-40.
  20. Behall, K. M. and J. Hallfrisch. Plasma Glucose and Insulin Reduction after Consumption of Breads Varying in Amylose Content. Eur J Clin Nutr. 56, no. 9 (2002): 913-20.
  21. Behall, K. M., J. C. Howe and R. A. Anderson. Apparent Mineral Retention Is Similar in Control and Hyperinsulinemic Men after Consumption of High Amylose Cornstarch. J Nutr. 132, no. 7 (2002): 1886-91.
  22. Behall, K. M. and D. J. Scholfield. Food Amylose Content Affects Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Responses. Cereal Chem. 82, no. 6 (2005): 654-659.
  23. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield and J. Hallfrisch. Whole-Grain Diets Reduce Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Men and Women. J Am Diet Assoc. 106, no. 9 (2006): 1445-9.
  24. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield and J. G. Hallfrisch. Barley Β-Glucan Reduces Plasma Glucose and Insulin Responses Compared with Resistant Starch in Men. Nutr Res (New York, N.Y.). 26, no. 12 (2006): 644-650.
  25. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield, J. G. Hallfrisch and H. G. Liljeberg-Elmstahl. Consumption of Both Resistant Starch and Beta-Glucan Improves Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Insulin in Women. Diabetes Care. 29, no. 5 (2006): 976-81.
  26. Bergeron, N., P. T. Williams, R. Lamendella, N. Faghihnia, A. Grube, X. Li, Z. Wang, R. Knight, J. K. Jansson, S. L. Hazen, R. M. Krauss. Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk. Br J Nutr. 116, no. 12 (2016): 2020-2016.
  27. Binou , P., A.E. Uanni, A. Stergiou, K. Karavasilis, P. Konstantopoulos, D. Perrea, N. Tentolouris, V.T. Karathanos. Enrichment of bread with beta-glucans or resistant starch induces similar glucose, insulin and appetite hormone responses in healthy adults. Eur J Nutr (2020) Epub 8 May 2020.
  28. Birkett, A., J. Muir, J. Phillips, G. Jones and K. O’Dea. Resistant Starch Lowers Fecal Concentrations of Ammonia and Phenols in Humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 63, no. 5 (1996): 766-72.
  29. Ble-Castillo JL, Aparicio Trapala MA, Gomez Vazquez A, Rodriguez Hernandez A, Mendez JD, Juarez Rojop IE, Aguilar Mariscal H, Ramon Frias T, Diaz Zagoya JC. Potential beneficial effects of native banana starch on glycemia and insulin resistance in obese nondiabetic women. Interciencia. 37, no. 6 (2012): 470-476.
  30. Ble-Castillo, J. L., M. A. Aparicio-Trapala, M. U. Francisco-Luria, R. Cordova-Uscanga, A. Rodriguez-Hernandez, J. D. Mendez, J. C. Diaz-Zagoya. Effects of Native Banana Starch Supplementation on Body Weight and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Type 2 Diabetics. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 7, no. 5 (2010): 1953-1962.
  31. Ble-Castillo, J. L., I. E. Juarez-Rojop, C. A. Tovilla-Zarate, C. Garcia-Vazquez, M. Z. Servin-Cruz, A. Rodriguez-Hernandez, C. I. Araiza-Saldana, A.M. Nolasco-Coleman, J. C. Diaz-Zagroya. Acute consumption of resistant starch reduces food intake but has no effect on appetite ratings in healthy subjects. Nutrients. 9 (2017): 696.
  32. Bodinham, C. L., G. S. Frost and M. D. Robertson. Acute Ingestion of Resistant Starch Reduces Food Intake in Healthy Adults. Br J Nutr. 103, no. 6 (2010): 917-22.
  33. Bodinham,  C. L., L. Smith, J. Wright, G. S. Frost, M. D. Robertson. Dietary Fibre Improves First-phase Insulin Secretion in Overweight Individuals. PLoS One. 7, no. 7 (2012): e40834.
  34. Bodinham, C. L., N. M. Al-Mana, L. Smith and M. D. Robertson. Endogenous Plasma Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Following Acute Dietary Fibre Consumption. Br J Nutr. 110, no. 8 (2013): 1429-33.
  35. Bodinham, C. L., L. Smith, E. L. Thomas, J. D. Bell, J. R. Swann, A. Costabile, D. Russell-Jones, A. M. Umpleby and M. D. Robertson. Efficacy of Increased Resistant Starch Consumption in Human Type 2 Diabetes. Endocr Connect. 3, no. 2 (2014): 75-84.
  36. Boll, E. V. J., L. M. N. K. Ekstrom, C. M. Courtin, J. A. Delcour, A. C. Nilsson, I. M. E. Bjorck, E. M. Ostman. Effects of wheat bran extract rich in arabinoxylan oligosaccharides and resistant starch on overnight glucose tolerance and markers of gut fermentation in healthy young adults. Eur J Nutr. 44, no. 4 (2016): 1661-1670.
  37. Botham, R. L., V. J. Morris, T. R. Noel, S. G. Ring. A study on the in vivo digestibility of retrograded starch. Carbohydr Polym. 29 (1996): 347-352.
  38. Bouhnik, Y., L. Raskine, G. Simoneau, E. Vicaut, C. Neut, B. Flourie, F. Brouns, F. R. Bornet. The capacity of nondigestible carbohydrates to stimulate fecal bifidobacteria in healthy humans: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-response relation study. Am J Clin Nutr. 80, no. 6 (2004): 1658-1664.
  39. Brighenti, F., L. Benini, D. Del Rio, C. Casiraghi, N. Pellegrini, F. Scazzina, D. J. Jenkins and I. Vantini. Colonic Fermentation of Indigestible Carbohydrates Contributes to the Second-Meal Effect. Am J Clin Nutr. 83, no. 4 (2006): 817-22.
  40. Brouns, Fred, Eva Arrigoni, Anna Maria Langkilde, Inge Verkooijen, Caroline Fässler, Henrik Andersson, Bernd Kettlitz, Michiel van Nieuwenhoven, Henriette Philipsson and Renato Amadò. Physiological and Metabolic Properties of a Digestion-Resistant Maltodextrin, Classified as Type 3 Retrograded Resistant Starch. J Agric Food Chem. 55, no. 4 (2007): 1574-1581.
  41. Brown, I. L., K. J. McNaught and E. Moloney. Hi-Maize: New Directions in Starch Technology and Nutrition. Food Australia. 47, no. 6 (1995): 272-275.
  42. Burn, J., D. T. Bishop, J. P. Mecklin, F. Macrae, G. Moslein, S. Olschwang, M. L. Bisgaard, R. Ramesar, D. Eccles, E. R. Maher, L. Bertario, H. J. Jarvinen, A. Lindblom, D. G. Evans, J. Lubinski, P. J. Morrison, J. W. Ho, H. F. Vasen, L. Side, H. J. Thomas, R. J. Scott, M. Dunlop, G. Barker, F. Elliott, J. R. Jass, R. Fodde, H. T. Lynch, J. C. Mathers and CAPP Investigators. Effect of Aspirin or Resistant Starch on Colorectal Neoplasia in the Lynch Syndrome. N Engl J Med. 359, no. 24 (2008): 2567-78.
  43. Burn, J., D. T. Bishop, P. D. Chapman, F. Elliott, L. Bertario, M. G. Dunlop, D. Eccles, A. Ellis, D. G. Evans, R. Fodde, E. R. Maher, G. Moslein, H. F. Vasen, J. Coaker, R. K. Phillips, S. Bulow, J. C. Mathers and Capp consortium International. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Prevention Trial of Aspirin and/or Resistant Starch in Young People with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 4, no. 5 (2011): 655-65.
  44. Bush, J.R., Alfa M.J. Decreasing levels of sporacetigenium correlate with improved diabetic parameters in healthy adults consuming MSPrebiotic(R) digestion resistant starch. J Aging Res Clin Pract. 7 (2018):176-180.
  45. Cairns, P., V.J. Morris, R.L. Botham, S.G. Ring. Physicochemical studies on resistant starch in vitro and in vivo. J Cereal Sci. 1996; 265-275.
  46. Cândido, FG, Ton, WTS, Alfenas RCG Addition of dietary fiber sources to shakes reduces postprandial glycemia and alters food intake. Nutricion Hospitalaria. 2015; 31(1):299-306.
  47. Cappellari, Fernanda Toaldo. Desenvolvimento de uma panqueca com biomassa de banana verde e seu efeito agudo em sinais subjetivos de fome e saciedade. 2019 Masters thesis, Universidade do Vale do Rios dos Sinos.  (Thesis is in Portuguese.)
  48. Cassettari VM, Machado NC, Louren ̧cão PL, Carvalho MA, Ortolan EV. Combinations of laxatives and green banana biomass on the treatment of functional constipation in children and adolescents: a randomized study. J Pediatr (Rio J). 95, no. 1(2019): 27-33.
  49. Champ, M.M.J., C. Molis, B. Flourie, F. Bornet, P. Pellier, P. Colonna, J-P. Galmiche, J-C Rambaud. Small-intestinal digestion of partially resistant cornstarch in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 68 (1998): 705-710.
  50. Chan, Y-T., S. Aufreiter, S.J. O’Keefe, D.L. O’Connor. Switching to a fibre-rich and low-fat diet increaes colonic folate contents among African Americans. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 44, no. 2 (2018): 127-132.
  51. Chen, Y.-T., M. Cornblath, J. B. Sidbury. Cornstarch therapy in Type 1 Glycogen-Storage Disease. New Engl J Med. 310, no. 3(1984):171-175.
  52. Chrystl SU, Murgatroyd PR, Gibson GR, Cummings JH. Production, metabolism and excretion of hydrogen in the large intestine. Gastroenterology. 102, no. 4 (1992): 1269-1277.
  53. Clarke JM, Topping DL, Christophersen CT, Bird AR, Lange K, Saunders I, Cobiac L. Butyrate esterified to starch is released in the human gastrointestinal tract. Am J Clin Nutr. 94, no. 5 (2011):1276-1283.
  54. Cloetens, L., V. De Preter, H. De Loor, P. Rutgeerts and K. Verbeke. Does the Biomarker 15n-Lactose Ureide Allow to Estimate the Site of Fermentation of Resistant Starch? Eur J Nutr. 47, no. 4 (2008): 217-223.
  55. Corrado M, Murillo AC, Chambers ES, Wood AJ, Plummer A, Lovegrove A, Edwards C, Frost G, Hazard BA. Effect of semolina pudding prepared from starch branching enzyme II a and b mutant wheat on glycaemic response in vitro and in vivo: a randomised controlled pilot study. Food Funct. 11, no. 1 (2020): 617-627.
  56. Costa ES, Franca CN, Fonseca FAH, Kato JT, Bianco HT, Freitas TT, Fonseca HAR, Neto AMF, Izar MC. Beneficial effects of green banana biomass consumption in patients with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 121, no. 12 (2019):1365-1375.
  57. Cummings, J. H., E. R. Beatty, S. M. Kingman, S. A. Bingham and H. N. Englyst. Digestion and Physiological Properties of Resistant Starch in the Human Large Bowel. Br J Nutr. 75, no. 5 (1996): 733-47.
  58. Dahl, W. J., A. Radford and B. Langkamp-Henken. Effects of Resistant Potato Starches on Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Function. In Annual meeting of the American Dietetic Association, 112, A-46: J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012. Conference abstract.
  59. Dainty, Sarah A.,Shannon L. Klingel, Stephanie E. Pilkey, Evan McDonald, Bruce McKeown, Michael J. Emes, Alison M. Duncan. Resistant Starch Bagels Reduce Fasting and Postprandial Insulin in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. J Nutr. 146, no. 11 (2016): 2252-2259. See also Dainty, S. A., The Effect of Resistant Starch Bagels on Glycemic Response in Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes.  Masters of Science thesis, The University of Guelph, Canada, 2015-05-04.
  60. Das, Sai Krupa, Susan Roberts, Edward Saltzman, Jennelle Yopchick, Stephanie Power, Sarbattama Sen, Nina Lowery, Errol Norwitz and Lorien Urban. Effect of a Behavioral Intervention with Cereal Fiber or Resistant Starch on Gestational Weight Gain: A Randomized Clinical Trial. FASEB J. 29, no. 1 Supplement (2015). Conference abstract.
  61. de Oliveira Lomeu, F.L.R., C.R. Vieira, F.D. Lucia, S.M.O.M. Veiga, H.S.D. Martino, R.R. Silva. Cocoa and unripe banana flour beverages improve anthropometric and biochemical markers in overweight women: a randomised double-blind study. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. Epub 5 Feb 2020.
  62. de Paiva, B.R., M. Esgalhado, N.A. Borges, J.A. Kemp, G. Alves, P.E. Correa Leite, R. Macedo, L. F.M.F. Cardozo, de Brito, J.S., D. Mafra. Resistant starch supplementation attenuates inflammation in hemodialysis patients: a pilot study. Int Urol Nephrol. (2020). Epub 1 Feb 2020.
  63. De Preter, V., L. Cloetens, P. Rutgeerts and K. Verbeke. Influence of Resistant Starch Alone or Combined with Wheat Bran on Gastric Emptying and Protein Digestion in Healthy Volunteers. Scand J Gastroenterol. 42, no. 10 (2007): 1187-1193.
  64. de Roos, N., M. L. Heijnen, C. de Graaf, G. Woestenenk and E. Hobbel. Resistant Starch Has Little Effect on Appetite, Food Intake and Insulin Secretion of Healthy Young Men. Eur J Clin Nutr. 49, no. 7 (1995): 532-41.
  65. Dodevska, Margarita S, Sladjana S Sobajic, Predrag B Djordjevic, Vesna S Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna V Spasojevic-Kalimanovska and Brizita I Djordjevic. Effects of Total Fibre or Resistant Starch-Rich Diets within Lifestyle Intervention in Obese Prediabetic Adults. Eur J Nutr. 55, no. 1 (2016): 127-137.
  66. Dronamraju, S. S., J. M. Coxhead, S. B. Kelly, J. Burn and J. C. Mathers. Cell Kinetics and Gene Expression Changes in Colorectal Cancer Patients Given Resistant Starch: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Gut. 58, no. 3 (2009): 413-20.
  67. Emery, E. A., S. Ahmad, J. D. Koethe, A. Skipper, S. Perlmutter, D. L. Paskin. Banana flakes control diarrhea in enterally fed patients. Nutr Clin Pract. 12, no. 2 (1997) 72-75.
  68. Emilien, C.H., W.H. Hsu, J. H. Hollis. Effect of resistant wheat starch on subjective appetite and food intake in healthy adults. Nutrition. 43-44 (2017): 69-74.
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  72. Esgalhado M., J.A. Kemp, R. Azevedo, B.R. Paiva, M. B. Stockler-Pinto, C.J. Dolenga, N.A. Borges, L.S. Nakao, D. Mafra Could resistant starch supplementation improve inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers and uremic toxins levels in hemodialysis patients? A pilot randomized controlled trial. Food Funct. 9, no. 12 (2018): 6508-6516.
  73. Esgalhado M, J. Kemp, B.R. Paiva, J. Brito, L.F.M.F. Cardozo, R, Azevedo, D.B. Cunha, L. Nakao, D. Mafra. Resistant starch type 2 enriched cookies modulate uremic toxins and inflammation in hemodialysis patients: a randomized, double-blind, crossover and placebo-controlled trial. Food Funct. Epub 27 Feb 2020.
  74. Eshghi, F., F. Bakhshimoghaddeam, Y. Rasmi, M. Alizadeh. Effects of resistant starch supplementation on glucose metabolism, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation marker, and oxidative stress in overweight and obese adults: randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Clin Nutr Res. 8, no. 4 (2019): 318-328.
  75. Fadlilah, S. H., Sunarti, A. Farmawati Effect of rich resistant starch snack on MCP-1 promoter methylation and triglycerides levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran). 50, no. 2 (2018): 230-238.
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  80. Flowers S.A., N.T. Baxter, K.M. Ward, A.Z. Kraal, M.G. McInnis, T.M. Schmidt, V.L. Ellingrod, Effects of atypical antipsychotic treatment and resistant starch supplementation on gut microbiome composition in a cohort of patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Pharmacotherapy. 39, no. 2 (2019): 161-170.
  81. Galvao Candido, F., W. T. Silva Ton, R.C. Goncalves Alfenas. Addition of dietary fiber sources to shakes reduces postprandial glycemia and alters food intake. Nutr Hosp. 31, no. 1 (2014): 299-306.
  82. Garcia-Vazquez, C., J.L. Ble-Castillo, Y. Arias-Cordova, R. Cordova-Uscanga, C.A. Tovilla-Zarate, I.E. Juarez-Rojop, V. Olvera-Hernandez, C.S. Alvarez-Villagomez, A.M. Nolasco-Coleman, J.C. Diaz-Zagoya. Effects of resistant starch ingestion on postprandial lipemia and subjective appeetite in overweight or obese subjects. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 16 (2019): 3827.
  83. Genoni, A., J. Lo, P. Lyons-Wall, M. C. Boyce. A Paleolithic diet lowers resistant starch intake but does not affect serum trimethylamine-N-oxide concentrations in healthy women. Br J Nutr. 121, no. 3 (2019): 322-329.
  84. Giacco, R., G. Clemente, F. Brighenti, M. Mancini, A. D’Avanzo, S. Coppola, G. Ruffa, G. LaSorella, A. M. Rivieccio, A. A. Rivellese and G. Riccardi. Metabolic Effects of Resistant Starch in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 11, no. 6 (1998): 330-335.
  85. Giles, E.D., I. L. Brown, P. S. MacLean, Z. Pan, E. L. Melanson, K. J. Heard, M-C. Cornier, T. Marden, J. A. Higgins. The in vivo net energy content of resistant starch and its effect on  macronutrient oxidation in healthy adults. Nutrients.11 (2019): 2484.
  86. Giuntini, E. G., F. A. H. Sarda, M. C. Y. Lui, C. C. Tadini, F. M. Lajolo, E. W. Menezes. Gastrointestinal hormone modulation after a double-blind interventional study with unavailable carbohydrates. Food Res Int. 77, no. 1 Special Issue (2015): 17-23.
  87. Gonçalves, G. V, W.B Iserhard, B. B. Thomé, R. Canova, R. Frandoloso, L.C. Kreutz, F. Fornari.  Dietary fiber and water improve bowel function and fecal microbiota in healthy subjects: a randomized clinical trial. Gastroenterology. 152, no. 5 (2017): S754.  Conference abstract.
  88. Goodpaster, B. H., D.L. Costill, W.J. Fink, T.A. Trappe, A.C. Jozsi, R.D. Starling, S.W. Trappe. The effects of pre-exercise starch ingestion on endurance performance. Int J Sports Med. 17 (1996): 366-372.
  89. Gower, B. A., R. Bergman, D. Stefanovski, B. Darnell, F. Ovalle, G. Fisher, S. K. Sweatt, H. S. Resuehr, C. Pelkman, Baseline insulin sensitivity affects response to high-amylose maize resistant starch in women: a randomized, controlled trial. Nutr Metab (Lond). 13, no. 1 (2016). Doi: 10.1186/s12986-016-0062-5.
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  91. Grubben, M. J., C. C. van den Braak, M. Essenberg, M. Olthof, A. Tangerman, M. B. Katan and F. M. Nagengast. Effect of Resistant Starch on Potential Biomarkers for Colonic Cancer Risk in Patients with Colonic Adenomas: A Controlled Trial. Dig Dis Sci. 46, no. 4 (2001): 750-6.
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