List of RS Clinicals

For those of you who are data-driven, this page lists of clinical (human) studies with unmodified resistant starch (type RS1, RS2, RS3). For explanations on the demonstrated benefits, see the health benefits page.

  1. Abell G. C. J., C. M.  Cooke, C. N. Bennett, M. A. Conlon, A. L. McOrist. Phylotypes related to Ruminococcus bromii are abundant in the large bowel of humans and increase in response to a diet high in resistant starch. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 66, no. 3 (2008): 505-15.
  2. Ahmed, R., I. Segal, H. Hassan. Fermentation of dietary starch in humans. Am J Gastroenterol. 95, no. 4 (2000): 1017-1020.
  3. Adyarini DD, Sinorita H, IKhsan MR. The effect of providing food made from resistant starch fiber (Dioscorea Esculenta, Maranta Arundinaceae L, Cucurbita Moschata, Manihot Utilissma) on the improvement of glycated albumin in type 2 diabetes mellitu patients at Dr. Sardjito General Hospital. Acta Interna J Internal Med. 9, no. 1 (2019):1-7.
  4. Agakawa, S., Y. Akagawa, Y. Sakai, M. Yamagishi, S. Yamanouchi, T. Kimata, K. Chino, T. Tamiya, M. Hashiyada, A.  Akane, S. Tsuji, K. Kaneko. Fiber-rich barley increases butyric acid-producing bacteria in the human gut microbiotaMetabolites 11, no. 8 (2021): 559.
  5. Alam, N. H., S. Islam, S. Sattar, S. Monira and J. F. Desjeux. Safety of Rapid Intravenous Rehydration and Comparative Efficacy of 3 Oral Rehydration Solutions in the Treatment of Severely Malnourished Children with Dehydrating Cholera. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 48, no. 3 (2009): 318-27.
  6. Alfa M. J., D. Strang, P. S. Tappia, M. Graham, G. Van Dormselaar, J. D. Forbes, V. Laminman, N. Olson, P. DeGagne, D. Bray, B-L. Murray, B. Dufault, L. M. Lix. A randomized trial to determine the impact of a digestion resistant starch composition on the gut microbiome in older and mid-age adults. Clin Nutr. 37, no. 3 (2018): 797-807.
  7. Alfa, M.J., D. Strrang, P.S. Tappia, N. Olson, P. DeGagne, D. Bray, B-L. Murray, B. Hiebert. A randomized placebo controlled clinical trial to determine the impact of digestion resistant starch MSPrebiotic(R) on glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in elderly and mid-aged adults. Front Med. 4 (2018): 260.
  8. Alhussain MH, Almost A, Alhowikan A. Impact of resistant starch type-3 on glucose metabolism and appetite in healthy males.  Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 80, no. OCE2: E66.
  9. Al-Mana, N.M., M.D. Robertson. The impact of body mass index status on appetite responses and food intake following acute consumption of resistant starch. Proc Nutr Soc. 77, no. OCE2 (2018): E36.
  10. Alles, M. S., M. B. Katan, J. M. Salemans, K. M. Van Laere, M. J. Gerichhausen, M. J. Rozendaal and F. M. Nagengast. Bacterial Fermentation of Fructooligosaccharides and Resistant Starch in Patients with an Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 66, no. 5 (1997): 1286-92.
  11. Álvarez-Acosta, T., C. León, S. Acosta-González, H. Parra-Soto, I. Cluet-Rodriguez, M. Rosario Rossell, J. A. Colina-Chourio. Beneficial Role of Green Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) in the management of Persistent Diarrhea: A Prospective Randomized Trial. J Am Coll Nutr. 28, no. 2 (2009):169-176.
  12. Amaral O, Guerreiro C, Almeida A, Cravo M. Bread with a high level of resistant starch influenced the digestibility of the available starch fractionBioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre. 28 (2022): 100318.
  13. Anderson, G. H., N. L. Catherine, D. M. Woodend and T. M. Wolever. Inverse Association between the Effect of Carbohydrates on Blood Glucose and Subsequent Short-Term Food Intake in Young Men. Am J Clin Nutr. 76, no. 5 (2002): 1023-30.
  14. Anderson, G. H., C. E. Cho, T. Akhavan, R. C. Mollard, B. L. Luhovyy and E. T. Finocchiaro. Relation between Estimates of Cornstarch Digestibility by the Englyst in Vitro Method and Glycemic Response, Subjective Appetite, and Short-Term Food Intake in Young Men. Am J Clin Nutr. 91, no. 4 (2010): 932-9.
  15. Ang, K., C. Bourgy, H. Fenton, A. Regina, M. Newberry, D. Diepeveen, D. Lafiandra, S. Grafenauer, W. Hunt, V. Solah. Noodles made from high amylose wheat flour attenuate postprandiual glycaemia in healthy adults. Nutrients 12, no. 8 (2020): 2171.
  16. Aoe S., F. Nakamura, S. Fujiwara. Effect of wheat bran on fecal butyrate-producing bacteria and wheat bran combined with barley on Bacteroides abundance in Japanese healthy adults. Nutrients. 10, no 12 (2018): 1980.
  17. Arias-Córdova, Y., J. L. Ble-Castillo, C. Garcia-Vazquez, V. Olvera-Hernandez, M. Ramos-Garcia, A. Navarrete-Cortes, G. Jienez-Dominguez, I. E. Juarez-Rojop, C.A. Tovilla-Zarate, M.C. Martinez-Lopez, J.D. Mendez. Resistant starch consumption effects on glycemic control and glycemic variability in patients with Type 2 Diabetes: a randomized crossover study. Nutrients 13, no. 11 (2021): 4052.
  18. Arias-Córdova, Y., J.L. Ble-Castillo, C. Garcia-Vazquez, V. Olvera-Hernandez, M. Ramos-Garcia, A. Navarrete-Cortes, G. Jimenez-Dominguez, S.E. Juarez-Rojop, C.A. Tovilla-Zarate, M.C. Martinez-Lopez, J.D. Mendez. A randomized crossover study highlighting the resistant starch consumption effects on glycemic control and glycemic variability in Type 2 diabetes patientsCurrent Overview on Disease and Health Research Vol. 5. 5 (15 Oct 2022): 17-38.
  19. Aryana, K, F Greenway, N Dhurandhar, R Tulley, J Finley, M. Keenan, R Martin, C Pelkman, D Olson and J Zheng. A Resistant-Starch Enriched Yogurt: Fermentability, Sensory Characteristics, and a Pilot Study in Children. F1000 Research. 2015, 4:139.
  20. Augustus E., M. Murphy, K. Quimby. P24-008-23 The evaluation of culturally appropriate, low-calorie meal replacement shakes in a small island developing stateCurrent Developments in Human Nutrition. 7, Supplementation 1, (2023): 100300.
  21. Azevedo, R, M. Esgalhado, J.A. Kemp, B. Regis, L.F.M.F. Cardoza, L.S. Nakao, J.S. Brito, D. Mafra. Resistant starch supplementation effects on plasma indole 3-acetic acid and aryl hydrocarbon receptor mRNA expression in hemodialysis patients: Randomized, double blind and controlled clinical trial. J. Bras. Nefrol. (2020). Epub 18 May 2020.
  22. Bajka, B.H., A.M. Pinto, N. Perez-Moral, S. Saha, P. Ryden, J. Ahn-Jarvis, A. van der Schoot, C. Bland, S.E. Berry, P.R. Ellis, C.H. Edwards. Enhanced secretion of satiety-promoting gut hormones in healthy humans after consumption of white bread enriched with cellular chickpea flour: a randomized crossover study. Am J Clin Nutr. 117, no. 3 (2023): 477-489.
  23. Balamurugan, R., S. Pugazhendhi, G.M. Balachander, T. Dharmalingam, E.K. Mortimer, G.L. Gopalsamy, R.J. Woodman, R. Meng, D.H. Alpers, M. Manary, H.J. Binder, I.L. Brown, G.P. Young, B. S. Ramakrishna. Effect of native and acetylated dietary resistant starches on intestinal fermentative capacity of normal and stunted children in southern India. Int J Environ Res Public Health. (2019) 16:3922.
  24. Bashir S., Z. Farooq, S. Zafar, T. Tufail, H. Bader Ul Ain, M. Hussain, E. Al Jbaawi, P. Saha, R. Kumar, R. O. Nyarko. Recording postprandial glucose reactions with potato starch structural improvements. Int J Food Sci. 2023: Article ID 1263896.
  25. Baxter, N.T., A.W. Schmidt, A. Venkataraman, K.W. Kim, C. Waldron, T.M. Schmidt. Dynamics of human gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in response to dietary interventions with three fermentable fibers. mBio. 10, no. 1 (2019), e02566-18.
  26. Becker, A., G.P. Schmartz, L. Groeger, N. Grammes, V. Galata, H. Philippeit, J. Weiland, N. Ludwig, E. Meese, S. Tierling, J. Walter, A. Schwiertz, J. Spiegel, G. Wagenpfeil, K. Fassbender, A. Keller, M.M. Unger. Effects of resistant starch on symptoms, fecal markers and gut microbiota in Parkinson’s disease – The RESISTA-PD TrialGenomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics. 20, no. 2 (2022): 274-287.
  27. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield and J. Canary. Effect of Starch Structure on Glucose and Insulin Responses in Adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 47, no. 3 (1988): 428-32.
  28. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield, I. Yuhaniak and J. Canary. Diets Containing High Amylose Vs Amylopectin Starch: Effects on Metabolic Variables in Human Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 49, no. 2 (1989): 337-44.
  29. Behall, K. M. and J. C. Howe. Effect of Long-Term Consumption of Amylose Vs Amylopectin Starch on Metabolic Variables in Human Subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 61, no. 2 (1995): 334-40.
  30. Behall, K. M. and J. Hallfrisch. Plasma Glucose and Insulin Reduction after Consumption of Breads Varying in Amylose Content. Eur J Clin Nutr. 56, no. 9 (2002): 913-20.
  31. Behall, K. M., J. C. Howe and R. A. Anderson. Apparent Mineral Retention Is Similar in Control and Hyperinsulinemic Men after Consumption of High Amylose Cornstarch. J Nutr. 132, no. 7 (2002): 1886-91.
  32. Behall, K. M. and D. J. Scholfield. Food Amylose Content Affects Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Responses. Cereal Chem. 82, no. 6 (2005): 654-659.
  33. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield and J. Hallfrisch. Whole-Grain Diets Reduce Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Men and Women. J Am Diet Assoc. 106, no. 9 (2006): 1445-9.
  34. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield and J. G. Hallfrisch. Barley Β-Glucan Reduces Plasma Glucose and Insulin Responses Compared with Resistant Starch in Men. Nutr Res (New York, N.Y.). 26, no. 12 (2006): 644-650.
  35. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield, J. G. Hallfrisch and H. G. Liljeberg-Elmstahl. Consumption of Both Resistant Starch and Beta-Glucan Improves Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Insulin in Women. Diabetes Care. 29, no. 5 (2006): 976-81.
  36. Bell K.J., S. Saad, B.J. Tillett, H.M. McGuire, S. Bordbar, Y.a. Yap, L.T. Nguyen, M.R. Wilkins, S. Corley, S. Brodie, S. Duong, C.J. Wright, S. Twigg, B.F. de St Groth, L.C. Harrison, C.R. Mackay, E.N. Gurzov, E.E. Hamilton-Williams, E. Marino. Metabolite-based dietary supplementation in human type 1 diabetes is associated with microbiota and immune modulation.  Microbiome. 10, no. 1 (2022): 9.
  37. Belobrajdic, D.P., A.R. Bird.  Evaluation of an ileorectostomised rat model for resistant starch determinetion. Nutrients 13, no. 1 (2020): 91.
  38. Bergeron, N., P. T. Williams, R. Lamendella, N. Faghihnia, A. Grube, X. Li, Z. Wang, R. Knight, J. K. Jansson, S. L. Hazen, R. M. Krauss. Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD risk. Br J Nutr. 116, no. 12 (2016): 2020-2016.
  39. Bester, A., M. O’Brien, P.D. Cotter, S. Dam, C. Civai. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing revealed the prebiotic potential of a fruit juice drink with fermentable fibers in healthy humansFoods 12, no. 13 (2023): 2480.
  40. Binou , P., A.E. Uanni, A. Stergiou, K. Karavasilis, P. Konstantopoulos, D. Perrea, N. Tentolouris, V.T. Karathanos. Enrichment of bread with beta-glucans or resistant starch induces similar glucose, insulin and appetite hormone responses in healthy adults. Eur J Nutr. 60, no. 1 (2021): 455-464.
  41. Birkett, A., J. Muir, J. Phillips, G. Jones and K. O’Dea. Resistant Starch Lowers Fecal Concentrations of Ammonia and Phenols in Humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 63, no. 5 (1996): 766-72.
  42. Blast, E., S.E. Rossi, R. Pietrangeli, M. Nasso. C. Cicatiello, S. Palombieri, F. Sestili. Functional biscuits, a healthy addition to your coffee break – evaluating consumer acceptability and willingness to pay.  Foods 13, no. 11 (2024): 1731.
  43. Ble-Castillo JL, Aparicio Trapala MA, Gomez Vazquez A, Rodriguez Hernandez A, Mendez JD, Juarez Rojop IE, Aguilar Mariscal H, Ramon Frias T, Diaz Zagoya JC. Potential beneficial effects of native banana starch on glycemia and insulin resistance in obese nondiabetic women. Interciencia. 37, no. 6 (2012): 470-476.
  44. Ble-Castillo, J. L., M. A. Aparicio-Trapala, M. U. Francisco-Luria, R. Cordova-Uscanga, A. Rodriguez-Hernandez, J. D. Mendez, J. C. Diaz-Zagoya. Effects of Native Banana Starch Supplementation on Body Weight and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Type 2 Diabetics. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 7, no. 5 (2010): 1953-1962.
  45. Ble-Castillo, J. L., I. E. Juarez-Rojop, C. A. Tovilla-Zarate, C. Garcia-Vazquez, M. Z. Servin-Cruz, A. Rodriguez-Hernandez, C. I. Araiza-Saldana, A.M. Nolasco-Coleman, J. C. Diaz-Zagroya. Acute consumption of resistant starch reduces food intake but has no effect on appetite ratings in healthy subjects. Nutrients. 9 (2017): 696.
  46. Bodinham, C. L., G. S. Frost and M. D. Robertson. Acute Ingestion of Resistant Starch Reduces Food Intake in Healthy Adults. Br J Nutr. 103, no. 6 (2010): 917-22.
  47. Bodinham,  C. L., L. Smith, J. Wright, G. S. Frost, M. D. Robertson. Dietary Fibre Improves First-phase Insulin Secretion in Overweight Individuals. PLoS One. 7, no. 7 (2012): e40834.
  48. Bodinham, C. L., N. M. Al-Mana, L. Smith and M. D. Robertson. Endogenous Plasma Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Following Acute Dietary Fibre Consumption. Br J Nutr. 110, no. 8 (2013): 1429-33.
  49. Bodinham, C. L., L. Smith, E. L. Thomas, J. D. Bell, J. R. Swann, A. Costabile, D. Russell-Jones, A. M. Umpleby and M. D. Robertson. Efficacy of Increased Resistant Starch Consumption in Human Type 2 Diabetes. Endocr Connect. 3, no. 2 (2014): 75-84.
  50. Boll, E. V. J., L. M. N. K. Ekstrom, C. M. Courtin, J. A. Delcour, A. C. Nilsson, I. M. E. Bjorck, E. M. Ostman. Effects of wheat bran extract rich in arabinoxylan oligosaccharides and resistant starch on overnight glucose tolerance and markers of gut fermentation in healthy young adults. Eur J Nutr. 44, no. 4 (2016): 1661-1670.
  51. Borkoles, E., D. Krastins, J.C. van der Pols, P. Sims, R. Polman. Short-term effect of additional daily dietary fibre intake on appetite, satiety, gastrointestinal comfort, acceptability, and feasibilityNutrients 14 (2022): 4214.
  52. Botham, R. L., V. J. Morris, T. R. Noel, S. G. Ring. A study on the in vivo digestibility of retrograded starch. Carbohydr Polym. 29 (1996): 347-352.
  53. Bouhnik, Y., L. Raskine, G. Simoneau, E. Vicaut, C. Neut, B. Flourie, F. Brouns, F. R. Bornet. The capacity of nondigestible carbohydrates to stimulate fecal bifidobacteria in healthy humans: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-response relation study. Am J Clin Nutr. 80, no. 6 (2004): 1658-1664.
  54. Brighenti, F., L. Benini, D. Del Rio, C. Casiraghi, N. Pellegrini, F. Scazzina, D. J. Jenkins and I. Vantini. Colonic Fermentation of Indigestible Carbohydrates Contributes to the Second-Meal Effect. Am J Clin Nutr. 83, no. 4 (2006): 817-22.
  55. Brouns, Fred, Eva Arrigoni, Anna Maria Langkilde, Inge Verkooijen, Caroline Fässler, Henrik Andersson, Bernd Kettlitz, Michiel van Nieuwenhoven, Henriette Philipsson and Renato Amadò. Physiological and Metabolic Properties of a Digestion-Resistant Maltodextrin, Classified as Type 3 Retrograded Resistant Starch. J Agric Food Chem. 55, no. 4 (2007): 1574-1581.
  56. Brown, I. L., K. J. McNaught and E. Moloney. Hi-Maize: New Directions in Starch Technology and Nutrition. Food Australia. 47, no. 6 (1995): 272-275.
  57. Burn, J., D. T. Bishop, J. P. Mecklin, F. Macrae, G. Moslein, S. Olschwang, M. L. Bisgaard, R. Ramesar, D. Eccles, E. R. Maher, L. Bertario, H. J. Jarvinen, A. Lindblom, D. G. Evans, J. Lubinski, P. J. Morrison, J. W. Ho, H. F. Vasen, L. Side, H. J. Thomas, R. J. Scott, M. Dunlop, G. Barker, F. Elliott, J. R. Jass, R. Fodde, H. T. Lynch, J. C. Mathers and CAPP Investigators. Effect of Aspirin or Resistant Starch on Colorectal Neoplasia in the Lynch Syndrome. N Engl J Med. 359, no. 24 (2008): 2567-78.
  58. Burn, J., D. T. Bishop, P. D. Chapman, F. Elliott, L. Bertario, M. G. Dunlop, D. Eccles, A. Ellis, D. G. Evans, R. Fodde, E. R. Maher, G. Moslein, H. F. Vasen, J. Coaker, R. K. Phillips, S. Bulow, J. C. Mathers and Capp consortium International. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Prevention Trial of Aspirin and/or Resistant Starch in Young People with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 4, no. 5 (2011): 655-65.
  59. Bush, J.R., Alfa M.J. Decreasing levels of sporacetigenium correlate with improved diabetic parameters in healthy adults consuming MSPrebiotic(R) digestion resistant starch. J Aging Res Clin Pract. 7 (2018):176-180.
  60. Bush, J.R., M.J. Alfa. Increasing levels of Parasutterella in the gut microbiome correlate with improving low-density lipoprotein levels in healthy adults consuming resistant potato starch during a randomised trial. BMC Nutrition 6, no. 1(2020):72.
  61. Bush J.R., J. Bailey, S.V. Harding, M.J. Alfa. Consumption of Soulful (TM) Resistant potato starch produces a prebiotic effect in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutrients. 15, no. 7 (2023): 1582.
  62. Bush J.R., J. Han, E.C. Deehan, S.V. Harding, M. Maiya, J. Bailey, D. Schibli, D.R. Goodlett. Resistant potato starch supplementation reduces serum histamine levels in healthy adults with links to attenuated intestinal permeability.  J Funct Foods. 108 (Sept 2023): 105740.
  63. Cairns, P., V.J. Morris, R.L. Botham, S.G. Ring. Physicochemical studies on resistant starch in vitro and in vivo. J Cereal Sci. 1996; 265-275.
  64. Calder, N., K. Walsh, P. Olupot-Olupot, T. Ssenyondo, R. Muhindo, A. Mpoya, J. Brignardello, X. Wang, E. McKay, D. Morrison, E. Holmes, G. Frost, K. Maitland. Modifying gut integrity and micro biome in children with severe acute malnutrition using legume-based foods (MIMBLE): a pilot trial. Cell Reports Medicine. 2, no. 5 (2021): 100280.
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  66. Canfora EE, Hermes GDA, Muller M, Bastings J, Vaughan EE, van Den Berg, MA, Holst JJ, Venema K, Zoetendal EG, Blaak EE. Fiber mixture-specific effect on distal colonic fermentation and metabolic health in lean but not in prediabetic menGut Microbes 14, no. 1 (2022): 2009297.
  67. Canfora, E.E., L. Vliex, T. Wang, A. Nauta, F. Bouwman, J. Holst, K. Venema, E. Zoetendal, E.E. Blaak. 2′-fucosyllactose alone or combined with resistant starch increase circulating short-chain fatty acids in lean men and men with prediabetes and obesity. Frontiers in Nutrition. 10 (2023):dot:10.3389/fnut.2023.1200645.
  68. Cantu-Jungles, T., D. Hall, C. Goetz, A. Keshavarzian, B. Hamaker. OR14-02-24 Designed dietary fiber prebiotics for gut-brain axis healthCurrent Developments in Human Nutrition. 8, (2024): 103435.
  69. Cao S, Shaw EL, Quarles WR, Sasaki GY, Dey P, Hodges JK, Pokala A, Zeng M,  Bruno RS. Daily inclusion of resistant starch-containing potatoes in a dietary guidelines for Americans dietary pattern does not adversely affect cardio metabolic risk or intestinal permeability in adults with Metabolic Syndrome: a randomized controlled trialNutrients. 14, no. 8 (2022): 1545
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  81. Clarke, J., A. Boussioutas, B. Flanders, T. Lockett, K. Harrap, I. Saunders, P. Lynch, M., Appleyard M., A. Spigelman, D. Cameron, F. Macrae. Can butyrate prevent colon cancer? The AusFAP study: a randomized, crossover clinical trial. Contemporary Clinical Trial Communications. 32 (2023): 101092.
  82. Cloetens, L., V. De Preter, H. De Loor, P. Rutgeerts and K. Verbeke. Does the Biomarker 15n-Lactose Ureide Allow to Estimate the Site of Fermentation of Resistant Starch? Eur J Nutr. 47, no. 4 (2008): 217-223.
  83. Corbin, K.D., E.A. Carnero, B. Dirks, D. Igudesman, F. Yi, A. Marcus, T.L. Davis, R.E. Pratley, R.E. Rittmann, R Krajmalnik-Brown, S.R. Smith. Host-diet-gut microbiome interactions influence human energy balance: a randomized clinical trialNature Communications 14, no. 1 (2023): 3161.
  84. Corrado M, Murillo AC, Chambers ES, Wood AJ, Plummer A, Lovegrove A, Edwards C, Frost G, Hazard BA. Effect of semolina pudding prepared from starch branching enzyme II a and b mutant wheat on glycaemic response in vitro and in vivo: a randomised controlled pilot study. Food Funct. 11, no. 1 (2020): 617-627.
  85. Corrado, M., J. H. Ahn-Jarvis, B. Fahy, G. M. Savva, C. H. Edwards, B. A. Hazard. Effect of high-amylose starch branching enzyme II wheat mutants on starch digestibility in bread, product quality, postprandial satiety and glycaemic responseFood Funct. 13 (2022): 1617-1627.
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