List of RS Clinicals

For those of you who are data-driven, the following is a reasonable list of clinical (human) studies with unmodified resistant starch (type RS1, RS2, RS3). Much, too much to try to explain on this page (see health benefits page), but an impressive body of clinical evidence none-the-less.

  1. Abell G. C. J., C. M.  Cooke, C. N. Bennett, M. A. Conlon, A. L. McOrist. “Phylotypes related to Ruminococcus bromii are abundant in the large bowel of humans and increase in response to a diet high in resistant starchFEMS Microbiol Ecol 66, no. 3 (2008): 505-15.
  2. Ahmed, R., I. Segal, H. Hassan. “Fermentation of dietary starch in humans.” Am J Gastroenterol, 95, no. 4 (2000): 1017-1020.
  3. Alam, N. H., S. Islam, S. Sattar, S. Monira and J. F. Desjeux. “Safety of Rapid Intravenous Rehydration and Comparative Efficacy of 3 Oral Rehydration Solutions in the Treatment of Severely Malnourished Children with Dehydrating Cholera.” J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 48, no. 3 (2009): 318-27.
  4. Alfa M. J., D. Strang, P. S. Tappia, M. Graham, G. Van Dormselaar, J. D. Forbes, V. Laminman, N. Olson, P. DeGagne, D. Bray, B-L. Murray, B. Dufault, L. M. Lix. “A randomized trial to determine the impact of a digestion resistant starch composition on the gut microbiome in older and mid-age adultsClin Nutr Epub 30 Mar 2017.
  5. Alles, M. S., M. B. Katan, J. M. Salemans, K. M. Van Laere, M. J. Gerichhausen, M. J. Rozendaal and F. M. Nagengast. “Bacterial Fermentation of Fructooligosaccharides and Resistant Starch in Patients with an Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis.” Am J Clin Nutr 66, no. 5 (1997): 1286-92.
  6. Álvarez-Acosta, T., C. León, S. Acosta-González, H. Parra-Soto, I. Cluet-Rodriguez, M. Rosario Rossell, J. A. Colina-Chourio., “Beneficial Role of Green Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) in the management of Persistent Diarrhea: A Prospective Randomized TrialJ Am Coll Nutr 28, No. 2 (2009):169-176.
  7. Anderson, G. H., N. L. Catherine, D. M. Woodend and T. M. Wolever. “Inverse Association between the Effect of Carbohydrates on Blood Glucose and Subsequent Short-Term Food Intake in Young Men.” Am J Clin Nutr 76, no. 5 (2002): 1023-30.
  8. Anderson, G. H., C. E. Cho, T. Akhavan, R. C. Mollard, B. L. Luhovyy and E. T. Finocchiaro. “Relation between Estimates of Cornstarch Digestibility by the Englyst in Vitro Method and Glycemic Response, Subjective Appetite, and Short-Term Food Intake in Young Men.” Am J Clin Nutr 91, no. 4 (2010): 932-9.
  9. Aryana, K, F Greenway, N Dhurandhar, R Tulley, J Finley, M. Keenan, R Martin, C Pelkman, D Olson and J Zheng.  “A Resistant-Starch Enriched Yogurt: Fermentability, Sensory Characteristics, and a Pilot Study in Children” F1000 Research 2015, 4:139.
  10. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield and J. Canary. “Effect of Starch Structure on Glucose and Insulin Responses in Adults.” Am J Clin Nutr 47, no. 3 (1988): 428-32.
  11. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield, I. Yuhaniak and J. Canary. “Diets Containing High Amylose Vs Amylopectin Starch: Effects on Metabolic Variables in Human Subjects.” Am J Clin Nutr 49, no. 2 (1989): 337-44.
  12. Behall, K. M. and J. C. Howe. “Effect of Long-Term Consumption of Amylose Vs Amylopectin Starch on Metabolic Variables in Human Subjects.” Am J Clin Nutr 61, no. 2 (1995): 334-40.
  13. Behall, K. M. and J. Hallfrisch. “Plasma Glucose and Insulin Reduction after Consumption of Breads Varying in Amylose Content.” Eur J Clin Nutr 56, no. 9 (2002): 913-20.
  14. Behall, K. M., J. C. Howe and R. A. Anderson. “Apparent Mineral Retention Is Similar in Control and Hyperinsulinemic Men after Consumption of High Amylose Cornstarch.” J Nutr 132, no. 7 (2002): 1886-91.
  15. Behall, K. M. and D. J. Scholfield. “Food Amylose Content Affects Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Responses.” Cereal Chemistry Journal 82, no. 6 (2005): 654-659.
  16. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield and J. Hallfrisch. “Whole-Grain Diets Reduce Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Men and Women.” J Am Diet Assoc 106, no. 9 (2006): 1445-9.
  17. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield and J. G. Hallfrisch. “Barley Β-Glucan Reduces Plasma Glucose and Insulin Responses Compared with Resistant Starch in Men.” Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.) 26, no. 12 (2006): 644-650.
  18. Behall, K. M., D. J. Scholfield, J. G. Hallfrisch and H. G. Liljeberg-Elmstahl. “Consumption of Both Resistant Starch and Beta-Glucan Improves Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Insulin in Women.” Diabetes Care 29, no. 5 (2006): 976-81.
  19. Bergeron, N., P. T. Williams, R. Lamendella, N. Faghihnia, A. Grube, X. Li, Z. Wang, R. Knight, J. K. Jansson, S. L. Hazen, R. M. Krauss. “Diets high in resistant starch increase plasma levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, a gut microbiome metabolite associated with CVD riskBritish Journal of Nutrition. 116, no. 12 (2016): 2020-2016.
  20. Birkett, A., J. Muir, J. Phillips, G. Jones and K. O’Dea. “Resistant Starch Lowers Fecal Concentrations of Ammonia and Phenols in Humans.” Am J Clin Nutr 63, no. 5 (1996): 766-72.
  21. Ble-Castillo, J. L., M. A. Aparicio-Trapala, M. U. Francisco-Luria, R. Cordova-Uscanga, A. Rodriguez-Hernandez, J. D. Mendez, J. C. Diaz-Zagoya. “Effects of Native Banana Starch Supplementation on Body Weight and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Type 2 Diabetics” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 5 (2010): 1953-1962.
  22. Bodinham, C. L., G. S. Frost and M. D. Robertson. “Acute Ingestion of Resistant Starch Reduces Food Intake in Healthy Adults.” Br J Nutr 103, no. 6 (2010): 917-22.
  23. Bodinham,  C. L., L. Smith, J. Wright, G. S. Frost, M. D. Robertson “Dietary Fibre Improves First-phase Insulin Secretion in Overweight IndividualsPLoS One 7, no. 7 (2012): e40834.
  24. Bodinham, C. L., N. M. Al-Mana, L. Smith and M. D. Robertson. “Endogenous Plasma Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Following Acute Dietary Fibre Consumption.” Br J Nutr 110, no. 8 (2013): 1429-33.
  25. Bodinham, C. L., L. Smith, E. L. Thomas, J. D. Bell, J. R. Swann, A. Costabile, D. Russell-Jones, A. M. Umpleby and M. D. Robertson. “Efficacy of Increased Resistant Starch Consumption in Human Type 2 Diabetes.” Endocr Connect 3, no. 2 (2014): 75-84.
  26. Boll, E. V. J., L. M. N. K. Ekstrom, C. M. Courtin, J. A. Delcour, A. C. Nilsson, I. M. E. Bjorck, E. M. Ostman. “Effects of wheat bran extract rich in arabinoxylan oligosaccharides and resistant starch on overnight glucose tolerance and markers of gut fermentation in healthy young adults.” Eur J Nutr. 44, no. 4 (2016): 1661-1670.
  27. Brighenti, F., L. Benini, D. Del Rio, C. Casiraghi, N. Pellegrini, F. Scazzina, D. J. Jenkins and I. Vantini. “Colonic Fermentation of Indigestible Carbohydrates Contributes to the Second-Meal Effect.” Am J Clin Nutr 83, no. 4 (2006): 817-22.
  28. Brouns, Fred, Eva Arrigoni, Anna Maria Langkilde, Inge Verkooijen, Caroline Fässler, Henrik Andersson, Bernd Kettlitz, Michiel van Nieuwenhoven, Henriette Philipsson and Renato Amadò. “Physiological and Metabolic Properties of a Digestion-Resistant Maltodextrin, Classified as Type 3 Retrograded Resistant Starch.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55, no. 4 (2007): 1574-1581.
  29. Brown, I. L., K. J. McNaught and E. Moloney. “Hi-Maize: New Directions in Starch Technology and Nutrition.” Food Australia 47, no. 6 (1995): 272-275.
  30. Burn, J., D. T. Bishop, J. P. Mecklin, F. Macrae, G. Moslein, S. Olschwang, M. L. Bisgaard, R. Ramesar, D. Eccles, E. R. Maher, L. Bertario, H. J. Jarvinen, A. Lindblom, D. G. Evans, J. Lubinski, P. J. Morrison, J. W. Ho, H. F. Vasen, L. Side, H. J. Thomas, R. J. Scott, M. Dunlop, G. Barker, F. Elliott, J. R. Jass, R. Fodde, H. T. Lynch, J. C. Mathers and CAPP Investigators. “Effect of Aspirin or Resistant Starch on Colorectal Neoplasia in the Lynch Syndrome.” N Engl J Med 359, no. 24 (2008): 2567-78.
  31. Burn, J., D. T. Bishop, P. D. Chapman, F. Elliott, L. Bertario, M. G. Dunlop, D. Eccles, A. Ellis, D. G. Evans, R. Fodde, E. R. Maher, G. Moslein, H. F. Vasen, J. Coaker, R. K. Phillips, S. Bulow, J. C. Mathers and Capp consortium International. “A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Prevention Trial of Aspirin and/or Resistant Starch in Young People with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis.” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 4, no. 5 (2011): 655-65.
  32. Chen, Y.-T., M. Cornblath, J. B. Sidbury. “Cornstarch therapy in Type 1 Glycogen-Storage Disease“, New Engl J Med 310, No. 3(1984):171-175.
  33. Clarke JM, Topping DL, Christophersen CT, Bird AR, Lange K, Saunders I, Cobiac L. “Butyrate esterified to starch is released in the human gastrointestinal tract” Am J Clin Nutr 94, no. 5 (2011):1276-1283.
  34. Cloetens, Lieselotte, Vicky De Preter, Henriette De Loor, Paul Rutgeerts and Kristin Verbeke. “Does the Biomarker 15n-Lactose Ureide Allow to Estimate the Site of Fermentation of Resistant Starch?European Journal of Nutrition 47, no. 4 (2008): 217-223.
  35. Cummings, J. H., E. R. Beatty, S. M. Kingman, S. A. Bingham and H. N. Englyst. “Digestion and Physiological Properties of Resistant Starch in the Human Large Bowel.” Br J Nutr 75, no. 5 (1996): 733-47.
  36. Dahl, W. J., A. Radford and B. Langkamp-Henken. “Effects of Resistant Potato Starches on Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Function.” In Annual meeting of the American Dietetic Association, 112, A-46: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2012.
  37. Dainty, Sarah A.,Shannon L. Klingel, Stephanie E. Pilkey, Evan McDonald, Bruce McKeown, Michael J. Emes, Alison M. Duncan. “Resistant Starch Bagels Reduce Fasting and Postprandial Insulin in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes” The Journal of Nutrition. 146, no. 11 (2016): 2252-2259. See also Dainty, S. A., “The Effect of Resistant Starch Bagels on Glycemic Response in Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes”  Masters of Science thesis, The University of Guelph, Canada, 2015-05-04.
  38. Das, Sai Krupa, Susan Roberts, Edward Saltzman, Jennelle Yopchick, Stephanie Power, Sarbattama Sen, Nina Lowery, Errol Norwitz and Lorien Urban. “Effect of a Behavioral Intervention with Cereal Fiber or Resistant Starch on Gestational Weight Gain: A Randomized Clinical Trial.” The FASEB Journal 29, no. 1 Supplement (2015).
  39. De Preter, V., L. Cloetens, P. Rutgeerts and K. Verbeke. “Influence of Resistant Starch Alone or Combined with Wheat Bran on Gastric Emptying and Protein Digestion in Healthy Volunteers.” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 42, no. 10 (2007): 1187-1193.
  40. de Roos, N., M. L. Heijnen, C. de Graaf, G. Woestenenk and E. Hobbel. “Resistant Starch Has Little Effect on Appetite, Food Intake and Insulin Secretion of Healthy Young Men.” Eur J Clin Nutr 49, no. 7 (1995): 532-41.
  41. Dodevska, Margarita S, Sladjana S Sobajic, Predrag B Djordjevic, Vesna S Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna V Spasojevic-Kalimanovska and Brizita I Djordjevic. “Effects of Total Fibre or Resistant Starch-Rich Diets within Lifestyle Intervention in Obese Prediabetic Adults.” European Journal of Nutrition, (2015): 1-11.
  42. Dronamraju, S. S., J. M. Coxhead, S. B. Kelly, J. Burn and J. C. Mathers. “Cell Kinetics and Gene Expression Changes in Colorectal Cancer Patients Given Resistant Starch: A Randomised Controlled Trial.” Gut 58, no. 3 (2009): 413-20.
  43. Faisant, N., D. J. Gallant, B. Bouchet, M. Champ. “Banana starch breakdown in the human small intestine studied by electron microscopyEur J Clin Nutr 49, No. 2 (1995): 98-104.
  44. Faisant N., A. Buleon, P. Colonna, C. Molis, S. Lartigue, J. P. Galmiche, M. Champ. “Digestion of raw banana starch in the small intestine of healthy humans: structural features of resistant starchBritish Journal of Nutrition 73, No. 1 (1995): 111-123.
  45. Giacco, R., G. Clemente, F. Brighenti, M. Mancini, A. D’Avanzo, S. Coppola, G. Ruffa, G. LaSorella, A. M. Rivieccio, A. A. Rivellese and G. Riccardi. “Metabolic Effects of Resistant Starch in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.” Diabetes, Nutrition & Metabolism 11, no. 6 (1998): 330-335.
  46. Giles, E.D., K. Heard, I. Brown and J.A. Higgins. “Resistant Starch Promotes Increased Fat Oxidation in Healthy Adults.” In IUNS 20th International Congress of Nutrition, Poster Reference Number PO3304. Granada, Spain, 2013.
  47. Giuntini, E. G., F. A. H. Sarda, M. C. Y. Lui, C. C. Tadini, F. M. Lajolo, E. W. Menezes. “Gastrointestinal hormone modulation after a double-blind interventional study with unavailable carbohydratesFood Research International 77, no. 1 Special Issue (2015): 17-23.
  48. Gower, B. A., R. Bergman, D. Stefanovski, B. Darnell, F. Ovalle, G. Fisher, S. K. Sweatt, H. S. Resuehr, C. Pelkman, “Baseline insulin sensitivity affects response to high-amylose maize resistant starch in women: a randomized, controlled trial.” Nutr Metab (Lond), 13, no. 1 (2016). Doi: 10.1186/s12986-016-0062-5.
  49. Granfeldt, Y., A. Drews and I. Bjorck. “Arepas Made from High Amylose Corn Flour Produce Favorably Low Glucose and Insulin Responses in Healthy Humans.” J Nutr 125, no. 3 (1995): 459-65.
  50. Grubben, M. J., C. C. van den Braak, M. Essenberg, M. Olthof, A. Tangerman, M. B. Katan and F. M. Nagengast. “Effect of Resistant Starch on Potential Biomarkers for Colonic Cancer Risk in Patients with Colonic Adenomas: A Controlled Trial.” Dig Dis Sci 46, no. 4 (2001): 750-6.
  51. Hald, S., A. G. Schioldan, M. E. Moore, A. Dige, H. N. Laerke, J. Agnholt, K. E. Bach Knudsen, K. Hermansen, M. L. Marco, S. Gregersen, J. F. Dahlerup, “Effects of arabinoxylan and resistant starch on intestinal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomised crossover study” PLoS ONE 22, No. 7 (2016): e0159223.
  52. Hallström E, Sestili F, Lafiandra D, Björck I, Östman E. “A novel wheat variety with elevated content of amylose increases resistant starch formation and may beneficially influence glycaemia in healthy subjectsFood Nutr Res. 55 (2011) :10.3402/fnr.v55i0.7074.
  53. Harrold, Joanne, Leanne Breslin, Jennifer Walsh, Jason Halford and Christine Pelkman. “Satiety Effects of a Whole-Grain Fibre Composite Ingredient: Reduced Food Intake and Appetite Ratings.” Food & Function, (2014)
  54. Haub, M. D, K. L. Hubach, E. K. Al-tamimi, S. Ornelas and P. A. Seib. “Different Types of Resistant Starch Elicit Different Glucose Reponses in Humans.” Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 2010, (2010): Article ID 230501.
  55. Haugabrooks, E., Y. Ai, JL Jane and S. Hendrich. “High Amylose and Stearic Acid-Modified Resistant Starch: Human Post-Prandial Gut Fermentation and Blood Glucose Response.” In FASEB, 27, 125.8: The FASEB Journal, 2013.
  56. Haugabrooks, E., P. J. White, L. Pollak and S. Hendrich. “The Effect of Digestive Resistant Starch Derived from Crossbred Maize Lines on Human Blood Glucose Response.” In The FASEB Journal, 25, 771.14, 2011.
  57. Heijnen, M. L., J. M. van Amelsvoort, P. Deurenberg and A. C. Beynen. “Neither Raw nor Retrograded Resistant Starch Lowers Fasting Serum Cholesterol Concentrations in Healthy Normolipidemic Subjects.” Am J Clin Nutr 64, no. 3 (1996): 312-8.
  58. Heijnen, M. L., J. M. van Amelsvoort, P. Deurenberg and A. C. Beynen. “Limited Effect of Consumption of Uncooked (RS2) or Retrograded (RS3) Resistant Starch on Putative Risk Factors for Colon Cancer in Healthy Men.” Am J Clin Nutr 67, no. 2 (1998): 322-31.
  59. Higgins, J. A., D. R. Higbee, W. T. Donahoo, I. L. Brown, M. L. Bell and D. H. Bessesen. “Resistant Starch Consumption Promotes Lipid Oxidation.” Nutr Metab (Lond) 1, no. 1 (2004): 8.
  60. Hoebler, C., A. Karinthi, H. Chiron, M. Champ and J. L. Barry. “Bioavailability of Starch in Bread Rich in Amylose: Metabolic Responses in Healthy Subjects and Starch Structure.” Eur J Clin Nutr 53, no. 5 (1999): 360-6.
  61. Hoffman Sarda, F. A., E. B. Giuntini, M. L. P. A. Gomez, M. C. Y. Lul, J. A. E. Negrini, C. C. Tadini, F. M. Lajolo, E. W. Menezes, “Impact of resistant starch from unripe banana flour on hunger, satiety, and glucose homeostasis in healthy volunteersJ Funct Foods 24 (2016): 63-74.
  62. Hospers, Jeannette J., Johan M. M. Van Amelsvoort and Jan A. Weststrate. “Amylose-to-Amylopectin Ratio in Pastas Affects Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Responses and Satiety in Males.” Journal of Food Science 59, no. 5 (1994): 1144-1149.
  63. Howe, J. C., W. V. Rumpler and K. M. Behall. “Dietary Starch Composition and Level of Energy Intake Alter Nutrient Oxidation in “Carbohydrate-Sensitive Men.” J Nutr 126, no. 9 (1996): 2120-9.
  64. Humphreys, K. J., M. A. Conlon, G. P. Young, D. L. Topping, Y. Hu, J. M. Winter, A. R. Bird, L. Cobiac, N. A. Kennedy, M. Z. Michael and R. K. Le Leu. “Dietary Manipulation of Oncogenic MicroRNA Expression in Human Rectal Mucosa: A Randomized TrialCancer Prevention Research 7, no. 8 (2014): 786-795.
  65. Hylla, S., A. Gostner, G. Dusel, H. Anger, H. P. Bartram, S. U. Christl, H. Kasper, and W. Scheppach. “Effects of resistant starch on the colon in healthy volunteers: possible implications for cancer prevention.” Am J Clin Nutr 67, no. 1 (1998):136-42.
  66. James, S. L., C. T. Christophersen, A. R. Bird, M. A. Conlon, O. Rosella, P. R. Gibson and J. G. Muir. “Abnormal Fibre Usage in UC in Remission.” Gut 64, no. 4 (2015):562-70.
  67. Jenkins, D. J., V. Vuksan, C. W. Kendall, P. Wursch, R. Jeffcoat, S. Waring, C. C. Mehling, E. Vidgen, L. S. Augustin and E. Wong. “Physiological Effects of Resistant Starches on Fecal Bulk, Short Chain Fatty Acids, Blood Lipids and Glycemic Index.” J Am Coll Nutr 17, no. 6 (1998): 609-16.
  68. Jimenez-Dominguez, G, J. L. Ble-Castillo, M. A. Aparicio-Trapala, I. E. Juarez-Rojop, C. A. Tovilla-Zarate, D. J. Ble-Castillo, C. Garcia-Vazquez, V. Olivera-Hernandez, B. Perrez-Pimienta, J. C. Diaz-Zagoya, J. D. Mendez. “Effects of acute ingestion of native banana starch on glycemic response evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring in obese and lean subjectsInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12 , no. 7(2015): 7491-7505.
  69. Johnsson, E.V., L. M.N.K. Ekstrom, C.M. Courtin, J.A. Delcour, A.C. Nilsson, I.M.E. Bjorck, E.M. Ostman. “Effects of wheat bran extract rich in arabinoxylan oligosaccharides and resistant starch on overnight glucose tolerance and markers of gut fermentation in healthy  young adultsEuropean Journal of Nutrition 55, No. 4 (2016):1661-1670.
  70. Johnston K. L., E. L. Thomas, J. D. Bell, G. S. Frost, and M. D. Robertson. “Resistant starch improves insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome.” Diabetic Medicine 27 no. 4 (2010): 391-97.
  71. Karalus, M., M., Clark, K. A. Greaves, W. Thomas, Z. Vickers, M. Kuyama and J. Slavin. “Fermentable Fibers Do Not Affect Satiety or Food Intake by Women Who Do Not Practice Restrained Eating.” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 112, no. 9 (2012): 1356-1362.
  72. Kelly J, S. Ryan, H. McKinnon, R. Romero-Gonzalez, P. Louis, D. Bosscher, A. Bonnema, S. Gratz, S. Duncan, A. Johnstone, H. Flint, J. Harrold, J. Halford, S. Shirazi-Beechey. “Dietary supplementation with a type 3 resistant starch induces butyrate producing bacteria within the gut microbiota of human volunteers” Appetite 91, August 1, 2015. epub ahead of print. Abstract – presented at a conference.
  73. Kendall, C. W. C., D. J. A. Jenkins, A. Emam. “Assessment of resistant starch tolerance: a dose response study.” Abstract presented at 9th European Nutrition Conference, October 1-4, 2003, Rome Italy.
  74. Kokke, F. T. M. , P. A. M. J. Scholtens, M. S. Alles, T. S. Decates, T. J. W. Fiselier, J. J. M. Tolboom, J. L. L. Kimpen and M. A. Benninga. “A Dietary Fiber Mixture Versus Lactulose in the Treatment of Childhood Constipation: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.” J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 47, no. 5 (2008): 592-7.
  75. Krezowski, P. A., F. Q. Nuttall, M. C. Gannon, C. J. Billington and S. Parker. “Insulin and Glucose Responses to Various Starch-Containing Foods in Type II Diabetic Subjects.” Diabetes Care 10, no. 2 (1987): 205-12
  76. Langkilde, A. M., M. Champ, H. Andersson. “Effects of high-resistant-starch banana flour (RS2) on in vitro fermentation and the small-bowel excretion of energy, nutrients, and sterols: an ileostomy study” Am J Clin Nutr 75, no. 1 (2002):104-111.  Raw green banana flour
  77. Larkin, T. A., W. E. Price and L. B. Astheimer. “Increased Probiotic Yogurt or Resistant Starch Intake Does Not Affect Isoflavone Bioavailability in Subjects Consuming a High Soy Diet.” Nutrition 23, no. 10 (2007): 709-18.
  78. Lasrado, J. A., M. L. Stewart, J. Slavin, D. A. Savaiano and C. H. Nakatsu. “Effect of Resistant Starch on the Bifidobacterial Community of Healthy Adults.” The FASEB Journal 22, no. 1_MeetingAbstracts (2008): 896.4.
  79. Lintas C, Cappelloni M, Adorisio S, Clementi A, Del Toma E.  “Effect of ripening on resistant starch and total sugars in Musa paradisiaca sapientum: Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in normal subjects and NIDDM patients” Eur J Clin Nutr 49 (Suppl 3) (1995):S303-306.
  80. Lobley, G. E., G. Holtrop, D. M. Bremner, A. G. Calder, E. Milne, A. M. Johnstone “Impact of Short Term Consumption of Diets High in Either Non-Starch Polysaccharides or Resistant Starch in Comparison with Moderate Weight Loss on Indices of Insulin Sensitivity in Subjects with Metabolic SyndromeNutrients 5 no. 6(2013):2144-72.
  81. MacNeil, S., R. M. Rebry, I. J. Tetlow, M. J. Emes, B. McKeown and T. E. Graham. “Resistant Starch Intake at Breakfast Affects Postprandial Responses in Type 2 Diabetics and Enhances the Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide – Insulin Relationship Following a Second Meal.” Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 38, no. 12 (2013): 1187-1195.
  82. Magee E. A., L. M. Edmond, S. M. Tasker, S. C. Kong, R. Curno, and J. H. Cummings. “Associations between diet and disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients using a novel method of data analysis.Nutrition Journal 4, no. 7 (2005).
  83. Maki, K. C., L. Sanders, M. S. Reeves, V. Kaden and Y. Cartwright. “Resistant Starch Improves Laxation in Healthy Adults.” The FASEB Journal 23, no. 1 Meeting Abstracts (2009): 919.1.
  84. Maki, Kevin C., Christine L. Pelkman, E. Terry Finocchiaro, Kathleen M. Kelley, Andrea L. Lawless, Arianne L. Schild and Tia M. Rains. “Resistant Starch from High-Amylose Maize Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight and Obese Men.” The Journal of Nutrition 142, no. 4 (2012): 717-723.
  85. Malcomson, F., N. D. Willis, I. McCallum, L. Xie, W. Leung, S. B. Kelly, M. Bradburn, N. J. Belshaw, I. T. Johnson and J. C. Mathers. “Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Non-Digestible Carbohydrates on Wnt Signalling Pathway Gene Expression and Its Functional Outcomes in the Large Bowel: A Human Dietary Intervention Study.” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 73, no. OCE1 (2014).
  86. Malcomson, F. C., N. D. Willis, I. McCallum, L. Xie, I. Ibero-Baraibar, W. C. Leung, S. Kelly, D. M. Bradburn, N. J. Belshaw, I. T. Johnson, J. C. Mathers. “Effects of supplementation with nondigestible carbohydrates on fecal calprotectin and on epigenetic regulation of SFRP1 expression in the large-bowel mucosa of healthy individualsAm J Clin Nutr 105, no, 2 (2017): 400-410.
  87. Malcomson, F. C., N. D. Willis, I. McCallum, L. Xie, B. Lagerwaard, S. Kelly, M. Bradburn, N. J. Belshaw, I. T. Johnson, J. C. Mathers. “Non-digestible carbohydrates supplementation increases miR-32 expression in the healthy human colorectal epithelium: a randomized controlled trialMolecular Carcinogenesis  Epub ahead of print 9 May 2017.
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